The oldest cycling tradition and possibly the first strand to be developed since the invention of the bicycle as the 'Cycle Touring Club' was founded in 1878.
Also known by the name of 'Cycle touring' the sport is characterised by the fact that the rider carries their equipment on their bicycles when completing a tour.
The oldest race recorded was in 1887. 'Le tour de France' started in 1903 helping to popularise the sport of race cycling. Race cycling became so popular that the sport became mainstream and was simply known as 'cycling'.
Adventure cycling was affected as touring bikes began being produced with race cycle geometry.
Mountain biking in it's purest sense was developed in California in the 1970's. Mountain bikes where developed for fast descents and was a real innovation for the cycling world.
Although there are mentions in mountain biking history of 'cyclo-cross' and cycles being modified for off-road expeditions before the 1970's. There is a strong case for argument that these forms are sub cultures of adventure cycling and race cycling.